1. Lymphoma : is a tumor of the lymphatic system in the body, which is part of the immune system and consists of lymphatic organs including the spleen and bone marrow. These organs are full of lymph which is responsible for carrying nutrients and white blood cells throughout the body. The disorders of these white blood cells are causing lymphoma which there are 2 types; Hodgkin Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
2. Thalassemia : is anemia with abnormal red blood cells and easily to hemolyze. This disease can be inherited from both parents who are carriers of thalassemia which the carriers are normal healthy people. The patients with this disease have symptoms at birth; jaundice, yellow eyes, slow growth, enlarged facial bone deformities, enlarged liver, spleen, and other complications that may follow.
3. Bone cancer : is the name for malignant bone tumors. The most common bone cancers are Osteosarcoma and Chondrosarcoma which can be divided into 2 groups as follows;
– Primary bone cancer is caused by the bone cells themselves, usually occurs in long bones such as the arm or leg bones.
– Secondary bone cancer is cancer that has spread from other organs in the body to the bone. When cancer spreads to the bone, it will cause the bones to weaken, which often occurs with the spine and hip bones. The more common origin of cancer such as breast, lung, or thyroid cancer.
4. Aplastic anemia : is a disease in which bone marrow cannot produce enough blood cells causing the patient to have anemia, the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets is steadily low. Most patients will have gradual symptoms such as paleness, fatigue, weak, easily sick, bruising along the body, bleeding easily, some women may have heavy menstruation, or some people may have bloody vomit, bloody urine, or bloody stool. Severe anemia may cause heart failure. The cause of aplastic anemia is caused by 2 groups; the first is a genetic disease. The second is factors that occur later such as exposure to chemicals, taking some medications, exposure to high doses of radiation, or infections, etc.
5. Acute and chronic leukemia : is cancer that occurs in the bone marrow caused by abnormal production of white blood cells until there is a large volume and can’t control. The accumulation of white blood cells in the bone marrow, then released into the bloodstream causing the result of white blood cells abnormally high value. This disease can be divided into 2 groups;
– Acute leukemia : An abnormal increase of embryonic white blood cells (blast cells) that cannot differentiate into normal white blood cells. As a result, the production of all normal types of blood cells is decreased. The patients have short-term abnormalities such as fatigue, pale from anemia, fever from easy infection due to decreased white blood cells, or easy bleeding due to low platelet.
– Chronic leukemia : An abnormal increase in white blood cells but they are still able to differentiate into normal white blood cells. Therefore, the patients have gradual symptoms of the disease. However, the patients will have symptoms when there are white blood cells value too high which cause fatigue, anemia, or accumulation in the spleen causing an enlarged spleen.